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Clinical training

In order to achieve a multidisciplinary experience and achieve surgical technical excellence, the proposed schedule for your training is:

Endocrine surgery 9 months
Endocrinology 2 months
Laryngoscopy, nuclear medicine, endocrine pathology/endocrine oncology 1 month (combined)

An operative log is maintained to document and record your operative experiences. This is reviewed regularly and any deficiencies promptly rectified.

Rotation descriptions

Endocrine surgery

You evaluate people with endocrine disorders, consider indications and contraindications, and make appropriate surgical recommendations that are understood by the patient.

During this rotation, you develop and demonstrate operative expertise and proficiency in initial and re-operative endocrine problems, including preoperative considerations, perioperative management, surgical controversies, follow-up and prognosis.

You participate in educational activities, guiding and mentoring residents during surgical rotations and are responsible for two presentations at the chief resident conference.

During this rotation, you also develop at least one idea that leads to a manuscript and presentation at a national meeting. You spend time in the simulation, animal and cadaver laboratories to develop or refine surgical techniques and skills — especially minimally invasive.


You gain valuable perspective during this rotation, as you enhance your ability to recognize and logically evaluate endocrine problems of specific interest to an endocrine surgeon.

You also spend two weeks in our Endocrine Teaching Clinic and several weeks one-on-one with key clinically experienced faculty specialists in PGA, bone, thyroid and pancreas.

You attend the annual Endocrine Surgical University conference. Additionally, you participate and gain qualification at the American College of Surgeons Thyroid and Parathyroid Ultrasound course.

Laryngoscopy, nuclear medicine, endocrine pathology, endocrine oncology

During this rotation, you:

  • Enhance your ability to recognize endocrine pathology and cytology limitations of distinguishing benign from malignant
  • Interpret technology — immunostains, RET proto-oncogene, DNA ploidy, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), gene profiling and implications for proteonomics
  • Learn and develop skills in vocal cord examination, using indirect laryngoscopy and flexible scope
  • Gain experience in nuclear medicine technologies, such as Sestamibi, PET scan, metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), radioactive iodine (RAI) treatments

This experience includes extramural consultations, didactic lectures, one-on-one teaching of histopathology and rotations through our cytology and frozen section lab.

Didactic training

You participate in regular didactic programs as an integral part of this fellowship. Such opportunities include:

  • Chief resident conferences and presentations
  • Mortality and Morbidity (M&M) conferences
  • Consulting-day morning conference
  • Noon endocrinology conferences
  • Weekly endocrine surgery conference
  • Journal club topic presentations

Research training

Clinical research is included and expected during the training program. You have opportunities to design and implement clinical protocols, and supervision and mentoring is available from surgeons and the other related disciplines.

Scholarly activity such as presentations at national meetings, lectures and publications is expected.

Teaching opportunities

Opportunities are available for you to teach rotating residents and medical students. Most fellows will receive an instructor-level academic appointment at Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science.


To ensure that you acquire adequate knowledge and develop the appropriate technical skills to meet program expectations, your performance is monitored carefully during the Comprehensive Endocrine Surgery Fellowship. You are formally evaluated by supervising faculty members after each clinical rotation and meet with the program director to review these evaluations. In addition, you regularly evaluate the faculty to confirm that your educational needs are being met.