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Mayo Clinic cardiology fellow Chi Yui Yung, M.B.B.S., and cardiologist Shannon M. Dunlay, M.D., M.S.

Clinical training

During the 12 months of clinical training in the Cardiac Replacement Therapy Fellowship, 25% of your time is spent in the ambulatory practice to include experience in:

  • Outpatient and inpatient heart failure
  • Cardiac transplantation
    • Pretransplantation evaluation
    • Acute postoperative care
    • Chronic maintenance care
  • Mechanical circulatory device therapy
    • Pre-implantation evaluation
    • Acute postoperative care
    • Chronic maintenance care
    • End-of-life care
  • Advanced echocardiography
  • End-of-life care

You gain experience in the interpretation of oxygen uptake treadmill results and sleep studies, right and left heart hemodynamics, evaluation and treatment of pulmonary hypertension, and performance and interpretation of endomyocardial biopsy. You are exposed to a wide variety of conditions leading to heart failure, including ischemic heart diseases, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, and pulmonary hypertension.

The inclusion of the additional focused cardiac transplantation training allows this fellowship to meet requirements for United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) certification as a transplant cardiologist.

It is expected that you will function at the level of a senior cardiovascular fellow.

Rotation schedule

A typical schedule for this fellowship includes:

Heart failure service 4 weeks
Heart Failure Clinic 4 weeks
Transplant service 12 weeks
Transplant clinic 4 weeks
Ventricular assist device (VAD) service 12 weeks
Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory — a.m. 6 weeks
Pulmonary Hypertension Clinic 2 weeks
Electives 4 weeks
Research 4 weeks

Call frequency

Your call schedule is different for each rotation. Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science follows the recommendations of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) regarding duty-hour expectations.

Research training

Although this is primarily a clinical fellowship, you are expected to perform clinical research in the area of heart failure under the direction of supervising heart failure and cardiac transplant faculty. Dedicated blocked time is allocated through the year to allow for appropriate research training.

Didactic training

Clinical conferences, seminars, small discussion groups, journal clubs, and one-on-one instruction are integral parts of this fellowship. A full core curriculum is provided, which designates the expectation for you in terms of didactic learning.


While on this rotation, you are expected to attend required educational conferences provided by the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, including weekly Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory Conference, Echocardiography Laboratory Conference, and Cardiovascular Grand Rounds. In addition, a Heart Failure Journal Club is held the first Tuesday of the month for all staff and fellows in the subspecialty field of heart failure cardiology and transplant cardiology.

Teaching opportunities

Opportunities are available for you to teach rotating residents and medical students.


To ensure that you acquire adequate knowledge and develop the appropriate technical skills to meet program expectations, your performance is monitored carefully during the Cardiac Replacement Therapy Fellowship. You are formally evaluated by your supervising faculty members on a quarterly basis and meet with the program director to review these evaluations.

Completed faculty evaluations are reviewed by the program director and are immediately available electronically to you in the MedHub system. In addition, you have the opportunity to complete an evaluation of faculty following each rotation, as well as an evaluation of the program on an annual basis, to confirm that your educational needs are being met.