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Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship (Minnesota)


Mayo Clinic's three-year Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship is designed to prepare individuals for a full-time academic career in pediatric cardiology. It includes two years of intensive clinical training and one year of clinical or laboratory-based research.

Clinical training

Two of the three years of the fellowship are designed primarily for the trainee to develop the clinical skills necessary for the practice of pediatric cardiology. Exposure to clinical and laboratory research techniques is included in the two core years to help develop a scholarly approach to patient care and introduce the trainee to disciplines in which he or she may have a particular interest or ability.

During these two years, the trainee works in the pediatric cardiology clinic, both in Rochester, Minnesota as well as outreach sites, where more than 6,000 pediatric cardiology patient visits take place yearly. Of these, more than 1,000 are new patients, ensuring the trainee gains extensive experience in assessing patients with congenital or acquired heart disease and utilizing clinical examination skills in addition to radiography, electrocardiography and echocardiography under direct supervision of the full-time faculty.

Pediatric cardiology fellows also participate in a regular continuity clinic experience during the three-year training program. Each fellow is responsible for evaluation and management of a panel of patients, with increasing levels of responsibility, designed to maintain a continuity relationship during the entire three-year Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship.

Time is devoted to the inpatient services at Mayo Clinic Hospital, Saint Marys Campus, where more than 500 pediatric cardiology patients are admitted annually. Approximately 400 to 500 congenital cardiac operations are performed yearly, of which 325 are open heart procedures, including more than 10 heart transplantation procedures.

Approximately 325 cardiac catheterizations are performed each year on patients with congenital heart disease, many of which are interventional procedures. Each trainee performs about 200 cardiac catheterizations, with increasing degrees of responsibility and the opportunity to be involved in interventional cases.

With an annual congenital echo volume of more than 8,000 studies, fellows enjoy ample exposure to all aspects of congenital echocardiography, including transthoracic, transesophageal (including intraoperative) and fetal echocardiography. On average, a fellow completing the training program at Mayo is involved in well over 500 echocardiograms.

During the three-year program, the trainee assumes increasing responsibility in care of patients and supervision of junior fellows, pediatric residents and medical student clerks. The trainee is expected to complete one or more projects in clinical or cardiovascular laboratory research in collaboration with members of the faculty. Each trainee has opportunities to provide training lectures for pediatric residents and medical students as well as participate in the annual congenital echocardiography course at Mayo.

Rotation schedule

A typical rotation schedule for the three years includes:

Inpatient cardiology 3 months
Outpatient cardiology 3 months
Cardiac catheterization 6 months
Echocardiography 6 months
Electrophysiology and pacing 2 months
Cardiovascular ICU 2 months
Adult congenital heart clinic 1 month
Research 12 months


Elective time is available for additional training in any of the rotation areas or in related fields, such as:

  • Transplantation medicine
  • Basic cardiovascular research
  • Computer tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging
  • Nuclear cardiology

Didactic training

Mayo Clinic's Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship has an extensive didactic training program that includes:

Weekly conferences

  • Multidisciplinary case conference with cardiac surgery, adult congenital and imaging specialists
  • Cardiac catheterization
  • Echocardiography
  • Electrocardiography and electrophysiology
  • Fellow's core conference
  • Pediatric cardiology board review

Monthly conferences

  • Angiocardiography
  • Exercise testing
  • Cardiac physiology
  • Cardiac pathology
  • Journal club
  • Cardiac surgery

Quarterly conferences

  • Morbidity and mortality conference

In addition, informal clinical conferences are held with pediatric residents, interns and medical students doing clerkships in pediatric cardiology.

Fellows present reports on current research projects for critical review annually. In addition, pediatric cardiology fellows attend one national cardiology meeting for educational purposes during their program, and any other national cardiology meeting for which they have an abstract accepted for presentation.

Research training

Research experience is an integral part of the training of an academic pediatric cardiologist. During one of the three years of training, the trainee pursues a basic science research project or advanced training in a clinical subspecialty area of pediatric cardiology combined with a well-designed clinical research project.

Our trainees have been uniformly successful in research, either basic science or clinical, with all trainees successfully submitting and presenting abstracts for poster or oral presentation, and all of our trainees have had more than one first-author publication by the conclusion of their fellowship.

Each fellow is expected to take required research courses within Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, to fulfill the American Board of Pediatrics subboard requirement for research curriculum. Typical course work begins with an introduction to clinical research and statistics, and includes a course in aspects of research in pediatrics and adolescent medicine. These courses aid in the development of a scholarly approach to patient care.

This qualifies you to sit for the Subboard of Pediatric Cardiology examinations. The Scholarship Oversight Committee monitors your research progress, and a mentor is provided.